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An important Umbrian centre, in the 3th century it began to come in the Roman orbit, until it became a colony, called Spoletium, in 241 B.C..
The town remained always loyal to Rome, especially during the war between Hannibal and the Romans, when it repelled the enemy.
In about 100 B.C. it was, according to what Cicerone says, one of the richest and most beautiful colonies in Central Italy, and in 90 B.C. it became Municipio optime jure, belonging to the Horatia tribe; it was also Caio Melisso's native city.
Then the town followed the vicissitudes of the Roman Empire: it was converted to Christianity, and was invaded by barbarian tribes – passed there Teodorico, Belisario, Totila and Narsete.
Later Spoleto was occupied by the Longobards and became the capital of the important Duchy of Spoleto, which began in 569 with Faroaldo I.
On the fall of the Longobard dominion the Duchy passed under the rule of the Franks, and when their empire was dismembered, the dukes of Spoleto aspired to the imperial crown itself: the plan could not be realised because of the German intervention led by Frederick Barbarossa who, come to Italy to meet the Pope, destroyed the town in 1155.
Contended between Empire and Papal State, Spoleto was finally subjected to the latter from 1247. .
After long years of struggles between Guelphs and Ghibellines the town was pacified by Cardinal Albornoz and became a very important centre: among its governors there was also the famous Lucrezia Borgia, in 1499.
Spoleto passed through centuries of history in the ultra-conservatism of the Papal State, alternating periods of greater or lesser splendour, without any shocks until the French occupation: in that period the town became chief town of the Trasimeno District, surpassing in importance Perugia itself.
After the Restoration Spoleto was a seat of the Papal Delegation: the papal rule lasted until 17 September 1860, when the town was incorporated in the Kingdom of Italy.
Spoleto is a splendid town: characteristic corners and historical suggestions; a place where one can understand the importance of the relation between man and nature, and between history and landscape; a magic, harmonious place, perfect scenery to represent the marvels and the enchantments of the Festival of Two Worlds.